Yeni kriz kapıda: Kolera aşısı stokları tükenmek üzere

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Ölümcül hastalık salgınları yayılmaya devam ederken, kolera aşısı dozları üretildikleri hızla hastalara veriliyor ve küresel stoklar tamamen tükenmiş durumda.

Stephanie Nolen / The New York Times

Bu durum, acil salgın müdahalesi alanında çalışan hiç kimseyi şaşırtmıyor, çünkü aşı stoku yıllardır tehlikeli seviyelere kadar inmiş halde.

Bu yıl kullanıma sunulacak toplam küresel aşı arzı, en iyi ihtimalle ihtiyaç duyulanın dörtte biri kadar olacak. Şubat ayı sonunda ülkeler bu yıl koleradan 79 bin 300 vaka ve 1100 ölüm bildirmişti. Vakaları saymak için tek tip bir sistem olmadığından, bu rakamların çok daha yüksek seviyelerde olduğu düşünülüyor.

Ekim 2022’de, küresel acil durum kolera aşısı stokunu yöneten kuruluş, arzı genişletmek amacıyla insanlara iki doz yerine sadece bir doz aşı yapılması yönünde benzeri görülmemiş bir tavsiyede bulundu. Tek doz kolera aşısı altı ay ile iki yıl arasında bağışıklık sağlarken, birer ay arayla yapılan iki dozluk tam aşı, yetişkinlere yaklaşık dört yıl koruma sağlıyor.

Talep arzın iki katı

Salgınların aktif olduğu yerlerde insanları aşılama çabaları sürerken, geçen yıl ülkeler 76 milyon doz aşı talebinde bulundu. Ancak stoklarda sadece 38 milyon doz vardı, bu nedenle taleplerin sadece yarısı karşılandı ve bunlar da sadece tek bir dozdu. Büyük salgınlar için tüm koşulların mevcut olduğu Gazze Şeridi gibi yerlerde ya da koleranın endemik olduğu yerlerde yürütülmesi ideal olan önleyici kampanyalar için aşı kalmamıştı.

Daha fazla kolera aşısı üretme yarışı, çoğunlukla yoksul insanlar için olan bir aşılamadaki düşük kar marjlarından korkmayan kararlı ilaç üreticilerinin katılımıyla gerçekleşiyor ve buna rağmen salgınlara müdahale etmek giderek güçleşiyor.

Kolera aşısı üreten tek şirket Kore’de

Kolera, vücut öldürücü bakterileri kusmuk ve sulu ishal akıntılarıyla dışarı atmaya çalışırken bir gün gibi kısa bir sürede susuzluktan ölüme neden olabilir. Hastalık temiz olmayan içme suyu yoluyla yayılıyor. Mevcut salgınlar, temiz su sıkıntısı dışında iklim felaketlerinin yayılmasından da kaynaklanıyor. Son aylarda aralarında Afganistan, Zambiya ve Suriye’nin de bulunduğu 17 ülkede salgınlar görüldü.

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